Direct and Indirect Written Corrective Feedback: A Literature Review of Sampling and Design Features, Target Structures and Overall Effects

Abang Fhaeizdhyall

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(English, 11 pages)


Scholars' attention on written corrective feedback especially the direct-indirect dichotomy has been increasing due to inconsistencies in its effects toward L2 learners’ linguistic accuracy. Therefore, this study was performed to provide a literature review of the increasing number of WCF studies that may provide new perspectives for future research on direct-indirect WCF strategies. This study takes a systematic literature approach to synthesize 16 empirical studies that focusing on the effect of direct-indirect WCF from SCOPUS database. The 7-step systematic review process was used as the main approach for this study. 4 research questions were formulated to guide the study. The findings have revealed the sampling features of ESL context, beginner, and advanced proficiency levels of learners are underexplored. Moreover, it is also suggested that future studies incorporate control groups to compare the effects of directindirect WCF strategies with non-treatment groups. Methodologically, other research approaches should also be considered by future studies for most of the studies in the review applied experimental approach. In highlighting the targeted linguistic structures, this study has found the focus of studies in the review as mostly emphasizing on grammatical aspect, thus suggesting for more WCF studies on non-grammatical aspects. Finally, the overall effect suggests that indirect WCF was effective on both grammatical and non-grammatical structures whereas direct WCF was mostly effective on non-grammatical structures.





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