Recently, there has been a great expansion in the role of assessment in language instruction and education at large. This study investigated EFL (English as a Foreign Language) teachers’ perceptions and practices associated with learners’ language progress assessment. A questionnaire was developed and provided to 107 teachers in Jordan. The study addressed five dimensions: reasons behind assessment, purposes, techniques, sources, and potential challenges. The findings of the study suggest that more enhancement is required for teachers’ positive convictions associated with assessment process. Teachers continue using assessment for more “official” reasons with emphasis on “formal” rather than “alternative” assessment. Moreover, senior teachers and supervisors seem to play a minimal resource for EFL teachers, who still encounter some assessment-related challenges. These findings invite interventions towards better, more effective assessment of EFL students’ progress.